16 April 2021

Among Us - Travel Distance

One of the methods that didn't make it into my Among Us seminar paper is distance measuring. Instead of the exact, I used graph distance. Since given the states of the latter one, they aren't compatible.

What Unit Would Our Speed Be?

We define speed as the distance something moves within a specific time frame. In Guild Wars 2, we could convert between in-game units and meters.[1] However, Among Us doesn't have this to my knowledge. So, alternatively, we need to abstract this by creating a custom unit. We could choose rooms per second, players per second, and so on, but I've decided on the standard vision per second. Thus we can measure rooms in vision distance. Furthermore, if a room's wall distance is higher than one, players can't see it whole within their vision sphere. 

Measurement Of Movement Speed

Ill. 1: The approach to measuring velocity given
 crewmate vision ~GreenyNeko
To measure the velocity, we create a lobby with four instances. While you can do this with friends, it also works using Bluestacks instances. We use the recommended settings for the room (which we can consider as the standard settings). For the measurement, any map with a big room where you can walk in linearly will do. I decided to use the cafeteria of the Skeld. We place one of the players in the middle, and the other player will walk into the vision cone on one side and out on the other side, as demonstrated in the image on the right. A decent way to measure the velocity is to record the player's movement from the stationary player's view and then check how many frames have passed between entering and leaving the vision bubble. With the first frame at 78 (=1.3s) and the last at 335 (=5.5833s) the resulting speed is one player vision in 4.28333s or 1 crewvision / 4.28333 seconds = 0.23346cv/s.

Measuring The Map

Skeld with most distances measured ~GreenyNeko

Now having the player movement speed, we can use it in combination with the time it takes to get from one point to another to determine the distance of walls and hallways. These tools allow us to measure the whole map and use the data to approximate how long it takes us from one spot to another. The image on the left shows the result for the Skeld map. We can do this for the other maps, but I'll leave it at Skeld for this post. When we sum up the horizontal and vertical distances, we get the total distance approximation from one point to another. However, since players can walk diagonally, the sum is an overestimation of the shortest path.


An example of this would be the distance from navigation to the reactor.

Navigation to Weapons: 0.307cv+0.074cv/2+0.218cv+0.144cv+0.189cv = 0.894cv
Weapons to Cafeteria:0.116cv+0.125cv*2+0.237cv+0.198cv = 0.801cv
(guessing missing distances) 
Cafeteria to Upper Engine:1.012cv+0.237cv/2+0.77cv = 1.9005cv
(including the button) 
Upper Engine to Reactor: 0.397cv/2+0.339cv+1/3*0.498cv = 0.7035cv

In total that's 0.894cv+0.801cv+1.9005cv+0.7035cv = 4.299cv 
This would take a player 4.299cv / 0.23346cv/s = 18.414s. With a quick check on mobile and approximately reaching around 18s (Well 20s minus getting stuck twice and starting/stopping the timer), our calculation isn't too far off. We can do this for each room and enter the distances into a graph. Alternatively, we can take an already created graph and sum the distances for it.


10 March 2021

Self-Experiment: Effect Of Alcohol On Personality

With the exams and seminar paper behind my back, for now, I'm back writing blog posts. A few months ago, while researching personality in psychology, I found a paper on a self-study about alcohol's effect on personality. Given this, I got curious about its influence on my personality.

Disclaimer Regarding Alcohol Consumption

Before I share my research, I want to mention that I - in no way - recommend or encourage alcohol consumption. Excessive drinking is dangerous, if not even fatal. As such, I want to discourage any attempts of copying the described approach here. If, despite all, you still plan to try it yourself, talk to a doctor beforehand to help you stay safe.

Personality Models in Psychology

Most people probably heard about the Myers-Briggs personality types. However, the best is a personality model backed by a lot of research, which is the case for the five-factor model (FFM).  FFM categorizes personality into five dimensions. You can remember these by the mnemonic OCEAN, where the letters stand for openness, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism, respectively. It is widely used and appended with systems like the NEO-PI-R, adding six facets to each dimension.

Meaning of OCEAN[1,2]

I won't explain the whole FFM in this blog post. However, I do think explaining the domains and facets helps, understanding the results.

Openness: Often short-form for "Openness to Experience" is linked with intellect, intelligence, and creativity. It describes how curious and open people are to new experiences and also how liberal they are.

It is then split into the facets of:
artistic interests        
and liberalism
people higher in imagination use fantasy to spice up the ordinary life
how much interest and appreciation a person has in art
how much people are aware of and able to access their own feelings
determines how much people avoid routines and explore or try out new things
the interest people have in abstract ideas and thinking hard
determining how likely people are to challenge convention and tradition

Conscientiousness: This one is linked with the need for cleanliness, structure, and order. People who end up on the higher end feel the need to be useful and successful and they are careful and plan ahead.

Its facets are:
how confident people are in their ability of achievement
describes people's organization and cleanliness
determines a person's sense of duty and obligation
defines how hard a person strives for accomplishments
how self-disciplines a person is
how careful people are on their decisions

Extroversion: Most people are familiar with the idea of someone extroverted. That's the basis of this domain.

This domain has the facets:

Activity Level

is associated with how open people are towards others
describes how much people enjoy the company of others and of how many
assertive people take the initiative and lead
determines how much people enjoy a busy instead of a relaxed life
correlates to the interest in risks and thrills
is associated with how strong people feel positive emotions

Agreeableness: Agreeable people are nicer towards other people even strangers.

It has the facets:

determines how much a person believes others are fair or good
correlates with sincere and unguarded people behave towards others
is how much people enjoy helping others
is associated with the will of compromising or forfeiting on your needs for others
describes how modest people are
gives how much people can feel the pain of others

Neuroticism: Neuroticism is linked to the reaction to negative emotions. People high in neuroticism are more likely to be pessimistic or faster to be affected by stress and negative emotions.

The facets are:

defines how often and fast people become anxious or stressed
is how fast or easy people get angry
is the tendency to feel depressed
determines how much people care about what others think
is the ability to resist lust and cravings
describes the ability to withstand stress

The Approach

With FFM explained, let's see how I approached the self-experiment. There's a website by a Professor of the Pennsylvania State University which provides a personality test using FFM Neo PI-R given the International Personality Item Pool (IPIP).[2] To determine the alcohol's effect we'll take the delta before and after consumption. For this, I did the IPIP sober, using the full 300-item inventory for higher accuracy. For the second round, I prepared both cocktails and water. The purpose of the water is to combat hypohydration (water deficit) from the alcohol. Instead of measuring the exact alcoholemia (alcohol level in blood), I stopped drinking once physical and mental symptoms appeared. These include a slowdown of eyes, balance issues, increased talkativeness, and heightened mood. After repeating the IPIP, I compared the results.

The Results

Due to privacy, I'll publish the delta instead of the exact results.

Agreeableness +10 Neuroticism
Artistic Interests +5 Orderliness
Adventurousness +0 Achievement-Striving +13  Activity Level
Self-Consciousness -24
Excitement-Seeking +13 Modesty

When evaluating the results, it is important to keep in mind, results from personality tests deviate to a certain degree. Thus, we should only consider significant changes. Let's consider any deltas smaller or equal to five as insignificant.

We often link behaviors such as increased extraversion, decreased cautiousness and decreased worry to alcohol consumption. The changes across the whole extraversion domain reflect this increase. The big drop in cautiousness matches too. Lastly, the decrease of worry appears in the decrement of certain facets in neuroticism as well. Interestingly imagination increased, and intellect decreased. Especially since we shouldn't confuse the latter with intelligence. Another interesting discovery is the increase of immoderation by quite a bit, making it harder to resist drinking more, which results in a vicious cycle.


I rarely get drunk, but it sometimes happens during parties or celebrations. I felt like I'm more lost in thought, occasionally bursting out. I also enjoy philosophy even more than without, which is weird. So, I was interested in the result. Now given it, it seems typical and according to expectation. Non-the-less it is still interesting.

[1] 2017 Personality 14: Introduction to Traits/Psychometrics/The Big 5 - Youtube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pCceO_D4AlY
[2] International Personality Item Pool Representation of the NEO PI-R http://www.personal.psu.edu/~j5j/IPIP/

24 December 2020

Merry Christmas 2020

 Last year I shared some creators that helped me learn about game development. This year I'm gonna pass on some life advice kind of. If you play certain types of games, listen to music, are a bookworm, movie aficionado, or a weeb listen up. This goes out to you.

We Pass On Information By Telling Stories

The anime and manga "Dr. Stone" is an interesting example. In some chapters and one of the episodes, they mention the "100 Stories" that are passed on from generation to generation keeping important information.[1] Even better this is not made up. It actually matches up with real-life as well. Not only did Carl Jung research archetypes consciously or unconsciously hidden in stories, but we also tell our children stories that coincidentally have a moral. You might just do it as a bedtime story because you got one or two read for you or because you liked them but there's more reason for it. Whether it's teaching children not to take apples from strangers[2] or not to steal from others[3]. Another great example is the book "There's No Such Thing As A Dragon", which is also used by Jordan Peterson to illustrate this point. In this children's book, a dragon representing an issue is ignored within the household. Through the action of ignoring it, it grows bigger and bigger causing trouble all around until the family stops ignoring it and deals with it.  This tells us not to ignore problems and solve them, else they might get worse and blow out of proportion.[4] Those are all children's stories though.

This Is Not Limited To Children Stories

But, this is not limited to those. The bible is another example. It contains a lot of stories, instead of facts and you can learn from all of them. Whether it's questioning morals and decisions or showing what is righteous and what isn't. I would even go further to say this is also the case for animes. Seeing how a person has to struggles against being oppressed and abused in all kinds of ways[5], or people dealing with their own psychological issues.[6] Asking the question of what justice is and how it can be twisted.[7] Showing that you shouldn't rely on your talents too much and that regardless of how weird your quirks are you are like everyone else a human.[8] Things like you should think for yourself.[9] And even the topic of racism.[10] These are all examples of life lessons you can take from these artworks and there are probably many more.

So Keep On Consuming... However

Another thing that can be seen in many stories is to keep a balance and this is the case of the consumption stories as well. So, don't overdo it, make sure you balance your life well and wear the title of a weeb, bookworm, or movie aficionado with a smile and stand proud.

With that all being said, sorry for the lower quality I ran out of time from working on other stuff especially focusing all my writing on the seminar paper. I will be back writing blog posts after this semester. (Probably have to take a break for when I write the bachelor thesis too)
And have a Merry Christmas despite the current situation!

[1] https://dr-stone.fandom.com/wiki/100_Stories and Dr. Stone episode 17

[2] "Snowwhite"

[3] "Goldilocks and the Three Bears"

[4] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J54FMA895OA

[5] "Rising of the Shield Hero"

[6] "Persona 4: The Animation"

[7] "Death Note"

[8] "Mob Psycho 100"

[9] "Psychopass"

[10] "GeGeGe no Kitarou"

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I'm a junior game developer and software developer and I created this blog to share my ideas, thoughts and whatever I'm working on or doing.